The credit system is in accordance with the European Credit Transfer System. One credit, as a rule, is the equivalent to one hour per week of study throughout a semester (~15 weeks). Students can earn credits by passing an examination (in most cases oral) or successfully completing a practical course. The value of credit is independent of the grade if the latter is better than "fail" or "unacceptable" (see for grades below). The students have some flexibility to make their own tuition program for a semester. However, this opportunity is not without limit, because prior finishing of courses might be a requirement of the enrollment to others. (For the credit values of courses and course enrollment requirements see the curriculum of programs.)
Students' performance on examinations and at the end of practical courses is rated by grades in a five-scale system as follows: 5 (excellent), 4 (good), 3 (fair, satisfactory), 2 (passing, acceptable), 1 (fail, unacceptable). The passing grades are 2-5. Credits can be earned only with passing grades but the value of these does not influence the value of the credit (see above).
Candidates' performance on the examination is rated on the five-scale grade system (above), while the evaluation of the "Ph.D. Thesis" by reviewers and of the oral presentation by a committee applies a four-scale system, which is the same used for the final qualification of the Ph.D. degree itself: "Summa cum laude" (excellent), "Cum laude" (good), "Rite" (satisfactory), "Insufficiente" (unsatisfactory). In the latter case, the "Ph.D. procedure" is not successful the degree cannot be awarded.